The concept of “partition”, of creating “two states for two peoples”, was seen as the best solution by the British rulers: The British planned the the Israel-Jordan Partition out of British Mandate Palestine and the India-Pakistan Partition out of the Indian subcontinent at about the same time.
Globalsecurity.org describes the history of the India-Pakistan partition of 1947. “Mohammad Ali Jinnah, a Western-educated Muslim lawyer, persuaded the participants at the annual Muslim League session in Lahore in 1940 to adopt what later came to be known as the Pakistan Resolution, demanding the division of India into two separate sovereign states, one Muslim, the other Hindu…(1)
“On June 3, 1947, Mountbatten, the viceroy (1947) and governor-general (1947-48), announced plans for partition of the British Indian Empire into the nations of India and Pakistan, which itself was divided into east and west wings on either side of India.
The June 3, 1947 Partition Plan was prepared by Mountbatten in consultation with the British Government. It was based on a fundamental principle that transfer of power should take place according to the wishes of the people.
The principle of partition was specified in the plan : The all Muslim majority areas were to constitute part of Pakistan and similarly the Hindu majority areas were to go to India…(2)”
“…What followed was “ethnic cleansing” – a term that was to gain currency later in the 20th century…Partition unleashed untold misery and loss of lives and property as millions of Hindu and Muslim refugees fled either Pakistan or India…
By one account, over 8 million refugees poured across borders to regions completely foreign to them, with other accounts state that about 7 million people migrated to Pakistan from India and vice-versa.
By another account partition resulted in the forced movement of 20 million people (Hindus and Sikhs to India and Muslims to Pakistan). Most estimates of the numbers of people who crossed the boundaries between India and Pakistan in 1947 range between 10 and 12 million.(3)”
On February 26, David Axe wrote in the National Interest “Nuclear Nightmare: Are India and Pakistan on the Brink of War? Indian warplanes on Feb. 26, 2019 crossed the line of control at India’s border with Pakistan and bombed what New Dehli described as a camp belonging to the terror group Jaish-e-Mohammed. It was the first Indian air strike on Pakistani territory since 1971. Islamabad threatened to strike back. Jaish-e-Mohammed claimed responsibility for a Feb. 14, 2019 suicide attack in Indian-controlled Kashmir that killed 40 policemen.” https://www.yahoo.com/news/nuclear-nightmare-india-pakistan-brink-201200563.html
On February 26, 2019 Bloomberg reported “With a bitterly contested national election in India just weeks away, Prime Minister Narendra Modi was quick to exploit his military’s air strikes on a terrorist camp inside Pakistan that his government said killed more than 300 people. They came in response to a Feb. 14 suicide car bombing in Kashmir claimed by the Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed, which killed 40 members of India’s security forces.” https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-26/pakistan-army-says-indian-jets-intruded-neighbor-s-airspace
In 2002 beliefnet reported that Hindu-Muslim violence still continued in India. “Police shot four people to death Tuesday while trying to disperse mobs and halt looting in two towns in India’s Gujarat state, beset by three weeks of religious violence that has killed 718 people.
Two people were killed and five injured when police fired on rioters in two Muslim areas in the town of Bharuch, said local official Anju Sharma. He added that a curfew had been imposed on parts of the town 100 miles south of Ahmadabad, the state’s largest city.
In the town of Modasa, there was widespread arson and looting and “two persons have been killed in police firing,” said police superintendent Nitiraj Solanki at the district headquarters in Sabarkantha. “We are still taking stock of the situation,” Solanki said, adding that several shops were burned. It was unclear whether the dead were Hindus or Muslims.
Most of the dead in recent weeks have been Muslims killed by groups of Hindus. The violence in Gujarat began Feb. 27 when a Muslim crowd burned a train car carrying Hindu activists, killing 58 people. The army has been called in to help police restore order, but new incidents of Hindu-Muslim violence have occurred almost daily.”(4)
On September 2014 Reuters reported “Police in western India have arrested 140 people after two men were stabbed during violence between Hindus and Muslims that left more than a dozen injured and was triggered by an image posted on Facebook, officials said on Monday…Trouble was sparked by an image widely distributed on social media website Facebook that some Muslims considered offensive to Islam, said a senior administration official in the city. India has a dark history of religious violence, especially between the Hindu majority and Muslims, who account for more than 150 million people, making India the world’s third most populous Muslim nation.”(5)
Lucian Pye wrote in Foreign Affairs a Book Review for Sumit Ganguly’s “Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions Since 1947”.
“Since gaining independence in 1947, India and Pakistan have fought four wars and endured several crises. The recent evolution of Indian and Pakistani nuclear capabilities has led commentators to brand the subcontinent “the most dangerous place on earth.” (6)
Instead of bringing peace, the India-Pakistan partition of 1947 made the situation worse: While Pakistan became an Islamic State, India became a Secular State with one of the world’s largest Muslim populations where the clashes between Hindus and Muslims continue to be routine. After the partition there were 14 million refugees, 4 wars and a dangerous nuclear race.
The British planned the disastrous two state solution in India-Pakistan at the same time Jordan became independent from British rule (1946).
British General James Lunt, a former commander in the Jordanian Arab Legion, related in his biography of Glubb Pasha “Britain had infuriated the Zionists by separating Transjordan from Palestine, which had in turn, delighted the Arabs of course.” (Glubb Pasha, James Lunt, Harvill Press 1984, page 62).
In 1916, before WWI ended, the British and the French signed the secret Sikes-Pikot agreement defining their proposed spheres of influence in the Middle East if they won the war. According to the agreement, France was allocated to Northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, while the British would rule over Palestine and southern Iraq.
In 1920, following the provision of the Mandate to France and Britain at San Remo, the UK took control of British Mandate Palestine (Mandatory Palestine) in what is today Israel and Jordan, land captured from the Ottoman Empire.
The McMahon-Hussein correspondence (1915) reveals details of a secret deal between Sir Henry McMahon, High Commissioner of the UK in Egypt, and the Sharif of Mecca, Hussain Bin Ali, by which the British would give control of lands captured from the Ottoman Empire to the Arabs (Palestine was included within the boundaries that were proposed by Hussein) if the Arabs assisted the British in fighting the Turks during WWI.
In 1921 the UK created the Emirate of Transjordan (Jordan) in the land of Mandatory Palestine east of the Jordan River and appointed Abdullah, son of the Shariff of Mecca, as King of Jordan. Britain also appointed Abdullah’s brother Faisal as King of Iraq. Jordan was officially under British Mandate Palestine and obtained independence in 1946.
On November 24, 2017 Petra, the official Jordanian news agency reported that “Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, on Friday said that Jordanians and Palestinians are “one people living in two states”, appreciating His Majesty King Abdullah II, who spared no occasion to defend the Palestinian cause and Jerusalem before the world. The Palestinian leader’s remarks came as he received Amman Mayor, Yousef Shawarbeh, in Ramallah, in the presence of Jordan’s ambassador in Palestine Khaled Shawabkeh…” http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Site_Id=1&lang=2&NewsID=328812&CatID=13&Type=Home>ype=1
As Abbas admits the Palestinians and the Jordanians are one people, the Palestinians already have a State in Jordan.
Since the UN claims the Arab-Israeli conflict can be solved though a UNSC resolution why not submit one declaring that Jordan is Palestine?
America has existed for 240 years. The Ottoman Empire Occupied the Jewish Homeland for more than 320 years, from the early 1500s until 1922, a period longer than America has existed.
The settlements are not illegal: Israel has as much claim to Ottoman land as Jordan. The land was part of the Ottoman Empire before WW1. Israel and Jordan were both created from Ottoman land.
If there is a UNSC resolution demanding Israel to return Ottoman Land why there is no UNSC demanding Jordan to return Ottoman land ? Why exclude Jordan from the Israeli-Palestinian negotiations? Jordan was created in British Mandate Palestine. Most of the Jordanian population is Palestinian, the previous King said “Jordan is Palestine, Palestine is Jordan”. The Queen of Jordan Rania Al-Yassin was born in Kuwait to Palestinian parents Faisal Sedki Al Yassin and Ilham Yassin from Tulkarm, Jordan has a Palestinian Queen, the next King of Jordan will be the son of a Palestinian.
If Jordan is recognized as the Palestinian State the Arabs currently living in Israel can continue but they will be Jordanian Citizens. Jordan was also part of British Mandate Palestine, it must also be part of the solution. The “two state solution” was already implemented with the creation of a State for the Arabs in Jordan, the Palestinians already have a state in Jordan.
The India-Pakistan partition did not solve the Muslim-Hindu conflict, it made the conflict more dangerous. The Israel-Jordan partition did not solve the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Arabs continued demanding more land and now they want another partition.
The current situation is not “unsustainable” as some claim, the creation of another Arab State in the West Bank will not solve the conflict, it will make the conflict worse.
If a Palestinian State is created in the West Bank, Hamas will attack Israel from the West Bank as it does from Gaza and there will be war.
The same way that the India-Pakistan partition did not solve the conflict, the same way that the Israel-Jordan partition did not solve the conflict, the creation of another Arab State in the West Bank will not solve the conflict, it will make the conflict worse.
The Palestinian Media Watch translated an interview by one of Hamas founders Mahmoud al-Zahar to the Palestinian newspaper Al-Ayyam in which he said “transfer what it has [in Gaza] or just a small part of it to the West Bank, we would be able to settle the battle of the ‘final promise [to destroy Israel] with a speed that no one can imagine…[Some] have said Hamas wants to create an Islamic emirate in Gaza. We won’t do that, but we will build an Islamic state in Palestine, all of Palestine…”
There are other solutions to the Arab-Israeli conflict that will not endanger Israel’s existence. Since the UN believes the conflict can be solved with a UNSC resolution, why not submit one declaring that the Palestinians already have a State in Jordan? Jordan was created in land from British Mandate Palestine, most of the Jordanian population is Palestinian. Jordan must also be part of the solution.
Ezequiel Doiny is author of “Obama’s assault on Jerusalem’s Western Wall”